Smart devices are spreading the world because of their low costs and fast availability. With this usage increase, smart homes need powerful control systems able to interface multiple services. Home-assistant is the most known open source automation software for that kind of jobs and runs perfectly on Raspberry PI with Docker
In this tutorial I’m going to show you how to install home-assistant in Raspberry PI, using the docker installation method.
Home Assistant is an open source projects aiming to maintain a self hosted home automation system, focused on putting local control and privacy in your hands.
It has a full-customizable, web based dashboard to control your devices and interface your favourite smart life services. It tracks the state of all the devices in your home, so you don’t have to setup complex monitoring systems and you can focus on integrating your devices and writing automations.
Home Assistant works well on Raspberry Pi, turning it into the ultimate home automation hub.
Last but not least, it stores all data locally in your host, this way protecting your privacy from unwanted external data usage. For this reason, it is important to use a performing sd card with enough space, as sd cards influence drastically RPI speed as disks on common computers (refer also to my Raspberry PI optimization tutorial for more optimization tricks).
For this project, I’m going to use a cheap Raspberry PI Zero W. This procedure works with all other Raspberry PI boards with internet connectivity and able to run Docker. Raspberry PI 3 Model B or later are suggested for production environment. Be also aware to use a proper power supply, as many users refer to experience service restart with poor power source.
What We Need
As usual, I suggest adding from now to your favourite e-commerce shopping cart all needed hardware, so that at the end you will be able to evaluate overall costs and decide if continuing with the project or removing them from the shopping cart. So, hardware will be only:
- Raspberry PI Zero W (including proper power supply or using a smartphone micro usb charger with at least 3A) or newer Raspberry PI Board
- high speed micro SD card (at least 16 GB, at least class 10)
Check hardware prices with following links:
Start preparing operatng system. Install Raspberry PI OS Lite (for a fast, headless and lightweight OS) or Raspberry PI OS Desktop (in this case, working from its internal terminal). With Raspberry Zero W I strongly suggest Lite distribution because home-assistant is quite heavy for a PI Zero and this needs all of its computing power to run HA service.
Make your OS up to date. From terminal:
sudo apt update -y && sudo apt upgrade -y
You also need to install docker in your Raspberry PI (for this project you don’t need docker-compose and/or Portainer).
Install a Test Environment
Starting with a test environment is very simple with Docker containers. This means that whatever you are going to do in this installation will be deleted with the container once removed. It is a useful configuration when you want to try, for example, integration tests without affecting your production environment. This is also the best way to try, in general, Home-Assistant in your Raspberry PI. Getting a complete and working HA instance is as simple as running following command from terminal:
docker run -p 8125:8123 --name homeAssTest homeassistant/home-assistant
Note port mapping cofiguration, which exposed container 8123 port (default home-assistant port) to 8125 port. This is a possible way to run together different home-assistant instances (maybe test and production) on same Raspberry PI. Multiple HA containers can run in RPI boards with enought computing power (like PI 3 model B or later) and isn’t the best to have in a Raspberry Pi Zero W or PI 3 model A.
Once home-assistant image is downloaded (this operation occurs only during very first docker run, next ones will use image already downloaded) your terminal will show container logs:
WARNING: The requested image's platform (linux/arm) does not match the detected host platform (linux/arm/v6) and no specific platform was requested [s6-init] making user provided files available at /var/run/s6/etc...exited 0. [s6-init] ensuring user provided files have correct perms...exited 0. [fix-attrs.d] applying ownership & permissions fixes... [fix-attrs.d] done. [cont-init.d] executing container initialization scripts... [cont-init.d] udev.sh: executing... starting version 3.2.9 [11:29:50] INFO: Update udev information [cont-init.d] udev.sh: exited 0. [cont-init.d] done. [services.d] starting services [services.d] done.
At this point your container is running, but will take a few minutes to initialize itself.
From your favourite web browser, use your Raspberry PI IP Address (mine one is 192.168.1.80) to get url http://rpiIpAddress:8125. If this page return an error, please wait for home-assistant container ending its initialization operations.
The very first page will require a new user creation:
Add your Favourite Name, username and password. Then click “Create Account button”.
Next screen will let you define your home name, position and unit system preferences. Set according to your needs:
Click “next” button at the end of this page. Final first access page checks if you want to setup your first integrations/services.
You can set them later in your dashboard, so click “Finish” button.
Home assistant dashboard will load:
Install Production Environment
A production environment will include all these data required to actually use home assistant. From terminal, use following command:
docker run -d -p 8123:8123 -v /home/pi/homeAssProd:/config --restart unless-stopped --name homeAssProd homeassistant/home-assistant
This time, “-d” option is used to get container detached from terminal.
Port mapping (“-p” option) will use same port number both for internal and external binding.
As HA uses “/config” container folder to store data and configurations, this folder will be mapped on host with “-v” option. I’m using a “/home/pi/homeAssProd” folder, but you are free to set it where you prefer. This way, if you need to migrate on a different host (for example a different Raspberry PI), you will only need to keep a copy of this folder without moving the full container data. This also enables you to copy this folder into a different “homeAssTest” folder and make your tests on a different environment protecting production one.
Restart policy (“–restart”) will configure home assistant container to automatically restart until user stops it.
After these operations, your Home-Assistant container will be available and will start again with a new fresh instance.
Enjoy home assistant in your PI zero W!
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